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Tuesday, July 21, 2020 | History

5 edition of Organophosphates found in the catalog.

Organophosphates

Chemistry, Fate, and Effects

  • 202 Want to read
  • 33 Currently reading

Published by Academic Press .
Written in English


Edition Notes

ContributionsJanice E. Chambers (Editor), Patricia E. Levi (Editor)
The Physical Object
Number of Pages440
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL7326093M
ISBN 100121673456
ISBN 109780121673451

Organophosphate Insecticides Organophosphates (OPs) are a class of insecticides, several of which are highly toxic. Until the 21st century, they were among the most widely used insecticides available. Thirty-six of them are presently registered for use in the United States, and all can potentially cause acute and subacute toxicity. Organophosphates (OPs) is the term that includes all insecticides containing phosphorus. Book III, Miscellaneous Agricultural Chemicals. Thomson Publications, Fresno, California. pp. Tomlin C (ed) () The Pesticide Manual, 12th Ed. British Crop Protection Council. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Organophosphate insecticides (such as diazinon) are one type of pesticide that works by damaging an enzyme in the body called acetylcholinesterase. This enzyme is critical for controlling nerve signals in the body. The damage to this enzyme kills pests and may cause unwanted side effects in exposed humans. All organophosphates have a common. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus pesticides or organophosphate nerve agents can cause acute parasympathetic system dysfunction, muscle weakness, seizures, coma, and respiratory.

  Organophosphate (OP) toxicity is a clinical diagnosis. Confirmation of organophosphate poisoning is based on the measurement of cholinesterase activity; typically, these results are not readily available in a clinically relevant timeframe. Although red blood cell (RBC) and plasma (pseudo) cholinesterase (PChE) levels can both be used, RBC. Organophosphate is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. They can be found as part of insecticides, herbicides, and nerve gases, amongst others. Some less-toxic organophosphates can be used as solvents, plasticizers, and EP additives. The use of organophosphates accounts for approximately BRENDA: BRENDA entry.


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Organophosphates Download PDF EPUB FB2

"This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/: Hardcover.

The book not only covers the anticholinesterase actions of organophosphates, but also other, presumably independent, effects, such as teratogenicity, delayed neuropathy, immunotoxicity, and behavioral : $   This book, written by recognised experts, studies and presents information in a manner that basic scientists, medical personnel,environmentalists, agriculturists and those in public health and occupational medicine will find essential when considering the use of organophosphates Format: Hardcover.

Organophosphate Pesticides:children's Deadly Neurotoxic Poison: A Community based study of Neurobehavioural effects among children of agricultural workers in Rural Maharashtra, India [Prachi Sawant, Neelam Sukhsohale, Jyotsna Deshmukh] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Similar to the chemical warfare agents produced during World War II, organophosphates are some.

Publisher Summary The chapter introduces a book that offers a plethora of cutting-edge knowledge on various aspects of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CM).

OPs and CMs are the most commonly used pesticides throughout the world. This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are.

43 CHAPTER 5 Organophosphate Insecticides Organophosphates (OPs) are a class of insecticides, several of which are highly toxic. Until the 21st century, they were among the most widely used insecticides available.

Thirty-six of them are presently registered for use in the United States, and all can. This appendix briefly reviews the epidemiological evidence for the long-term health effects of human exposure to organophosphates (OP) used as pesticides“Pesticides” is an umbrella term for any chemicals designed for pest control.

They include insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. OP pesticide epidemiology has a bearing on the question of sarin toxicity for two primary by: 1. Hani A. Kushlaf, in Clinical Neurotoxicology, Organophosphates. Organophosphate insecticides more commonly cause neuropathy following acute or chronic exposure, but they have also been shown to cause a necrotizing myopathy that starts in the motor endplate region.

32 Experimental evidence shows that the necrotizing myopathy can be prevented by prior denervation or by use of pyridine   Organophosphate poisoning can be short- or long-term. It can be caused by large or small doses. The longer the exposure and the larger the dose, the more toxic the effects.

Kevin T. Fitzgerald PhD, DVM, DABVP, Kristin L. Newquist BS, AAS, CVT, in Small Animal Toxicology (Third Edition), Organophosphates and Carbamates. Organophosphates are the most commonly used insecticide worldwide. In the United States alone, million pounds of organophosphates are used annually.

20 They are found in agriculture, in the home, and on or. Introduction. Organophosphates (OPs) poisoning is an important public health problem in developing countries, because such compounds are widely used for the control of agricultural, industrial and domestic pests, and also leads to large numbers of cases of toxic effects on by: Organophosphates are a class of chemicals that block cholinesterase in humans, animals and insects, inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter, in the nerve terminal.

This makes them effective insecticides. Physostigmine and pyridostigmine are organophosphates used in treating myasthenia gravis. Ocular side effects. Organophosphate poisoning is poisoning due to organophosphates (OPs). Organophosphates are used as insecticides, medications, and nerve agents.

Symptoms include increased saliva and tear production, diarrhea, vomiting, small pupils, sweating, muscle tremors, and confusion. While onset of symptoms is often within minutes to hours, some symptoms can take weeks to : Organophosphates. Devin Gattey MD, in Clinical Ocular Toxicology, Primary use.

Organophosphates are a class of chemicals that block cholinesterase in humans, animals and insects, inhibiting the breakdown of acetylcholine, an important neurotransmitter, in the nerve terminal. This makes them effective insecticides.

Physostigmine and pyridostigmine are organophosphates used in treating myasthenia. Cholinergic toxicity may occur with pesticides or medications, but most serious exposures are due to organophosphate or carbamate pesticide exposure.

This poisoning kills about people worldwide, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Diagnosis is made be recognition of the cholinergic toxidrome when suspected by the history of illness. Purchase Organophosphates Chemistry, Fate, and Effects - 1st Edition.

Print Book & E-Book. ISBNis a rapid access, point-of-care medical reference for primary care and emergency clinicians. Started inthis collection now contains interlinked topic pages divided into a tree of 31 specialty books and chapters. Chapter Seven ORGANOPHOSPHATES AND CARBAMATES ORGANOPHOSPHATES Organophosphate (OP) compounds were first synthesized in significant quan-tities during the s, when tetraethylpyrophosphate was developed as an insecticide.

Azamethiphos General Information. Azamethiphos is an OP pesticide that was probably pro-cured locally during the PGW as a File Size: KB.

Organophosphate Poisoning occurs due to exposure to organophosphates, these organophosphate compounds are used as commercial insecticides, in chemical warfare as nerve gases and are used as aerosols or dusts. They are rapidly absorbed through skin and mucous membranes or by inhalation.

Organophosphates as weapons: As a weapon, organophosphates may be spread through the air. It also can be an “agent of opportunity.” This means that someone could explode the vehicle of transportation (truck or train) that is being used to ship the chemical, or .Organophosphorus compounds are organic compounds containing phosphorus.

They are used primarily in pest control as an alternative to chlorinated hydrocarbons that persist in the environment. Some organophosphorus compounds are highly effective insecticides, although some are extremely toxic to humans, including sarin and VX nerve agents.

Organophosphorus chemistry is the corresponding .This text/reference book provides the most comprehensive coverage of anticholinesterase compounds (Organophosphates and Carbamates), which constitute the largest number of chemicals that are primarily used as insecticides in agriculture, industry, and around the home/garden.